High level political support has been the key to Cambodia’s success under the second National Strategic Plan (NSP II). The epidemic is in decline and over 90% of eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) receive treatment. Cambodia is one of the few countries in the world that has achieved its Millennium Development Goals related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
However, the gains made in reversing the epidemic trends will remain fragile as long as pockets of high prevalence persist among subpopulations of entertainment workers, men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDU). The primary driver of Cambodia’s HIV epidemic continues to be heterosexual transmission between entertainment workers and their clients and other sexual partners. Spousal transmission occurs when clients of entertainment workers infect their wives and subsequently, the infants born to infected mothers.
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